3 najčešće greške prilikom kabliranja

Post objavio Vladimir Kos, direktor kompanije IP WAY

Pre 15-tak godina kada je UTP kabl počeo da menja koaksijalni kabl u računarskim mrežama IT serviseri su pravili neke greške koje su dovodile do nepouzdanosti rada pogotovo pri većim brzinama prenosa.
Danas kada UTP kabl užurbano menja koaksijalni kabl i u sistemima video nadzora istorija se ponavlja ali sada kod instalatera bezbednosnih sistema.


S obzirom da sam bio akter i u prethodnoj smeni u IT industriji (pa i sam sam grešio) mislim da bi par korisnih saveta svakom dobro došlo:

1. Ograničenje dužine linije
Maksimalna dužina linije je 100m - namerno nisam rekao dužina kabla jer linija obuhvata i sve nastavke (patch kablove) od mrežnog konektora na kameri do mrežnog konektora na sviču. Da...dobićete sliku sa kamere i sa 120, 130m... kabla ali slika ne znači da je sve u redu. Kod analognog video nadzora je to možda bilo tačno ali u IP mrežama mnogo znači kvalitet veze koji utiče na stabilnost u radu, broj izgubljenih paketa, kao i na sve one artifakte koje ne znamo da objasnimo (popularne veštice na mreži) - malo radi malo ne radi, juče radilo danas ne, kamera se povremeno gubi sa mreže, radi snimanje ali live view ne radi i tako dalje...Prvo se 'optuži' kamera, zatim VMS, svič ali u 99% slučaja u pitanju je bio kabl!
Maksimalna preporučena dužina patch kabla je 3-6m što nam ostavlja 90-95m kabla punog peseka položenog u zid, kanalice, regale...

2. Terminacija kabla - raspored parica. 

Ukoliko terminirate (završite) UTP kabl identičnim rasporedom boja na konektorima sa obe strane ne znači da je sve u redu. I opet... možda i dobijete sliku ali to ne znači da će sistem raditi pouzdano. Sve parice su upredene različito i parice koje se koriste za prenos podataka moraju imati određenu gustinu upredanja koja obezbeđuje kvalitet za prenos podataka odnosno smanjuje spoljašnje uticaje. Postoje dva standarda za terminaciju kabla i nebitno je kojim ćete raditi dokle god je isti sa obe strane kabla. Čak ukoliko pogrešite postoji mogućnost da će sve raditi jer ste dobili ukršteni (crossover) kabl i naveći deo modernih svičeva je dovoljno ”pametan” da ovo oseti i ispravi.

Raspored parica po A i B standardu

3. Terminacija kabla - tip kabla

Najčešća greška sa kojom se susrećemo i koja izgleda bezazleno ali pravi najviše problema je pogrešna terminacija kabla. Naime kako smo pisali postoje UTP kablovi različitih kategorija i različitog stepena zaštite ali postoji još jedna podela a to je na kablove punog preseka (wall) i kablove licnasnog preseka (patch cord). Ono što se često dešava u praksi je da se na kabl punog preseka montira RJ45 konektor direktno. Ređi slučaj je da serviseri od kabla punog preseka prave produžne (patch) kablove. S obzirom da RJ45 konektor nije predviđen za montažu direktno na kabl punog preseka to obično prouzrokuje probleme sa pouzdanošću rada opreme. Najčešće sve radi naizgled kako treba neko vreme a onda dolaze “veštice“...
RJ45 modul
Standard strukturog kabliranja nalaže da se kabl punog preseka terminira modulom, odgovarajuće kategorije, u nekom patch panelu. Veza sa aktivnom opremom (IP kamera, switch, ruter...) se ostvaruje preko patch kablova i najbolje je koristiti fabrički proizvedene određene dužine. Ušteda dobijena ili nekorišćenjem fabričkih ili terminacijom RJ45 konektora na kabl punog preseka nije ni izbliza tako velika kao potencijalni troškovi dijagnostike i otklanjanja problema  - da ne spominjem narušenu reputaciju instalatera i opreme.

Patch kabl

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